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The publications of the Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (‘TOAEP’) may be read, printed or downloaded from the Internet for personal use without cost to the reader pursuant to the CC-BY-NC-SA licence (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International) which applies to all TOAEP publications (including those in TOAEP’s Publication Series, Policy Brief Series, Occasional Paper Series, Law of the Future Series and Nuremberg Academy Series). TOAEP (with its entire catalogue of publications) has been certified as a digital public good by the Digital Public Goods Alliance.

In terms of the non-commercial obligation, readers may not in any way charge for the use of TOAEP publications by others, directly or indirectly (by, for example, reproducing them, storing them in a retrieval system, transmitting them, or utilizing them in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, in whole or in part, without the prior permission in writing of TOAEP). Readers must not circulate TOAEP publications in any other cover and they must impose the same condition on any acquirer.

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Other restrictions on the use of TOAEP publications that may flow from CC-BY-NC-SA apply.

TOAEP modified its copyright policy on 15 September 2022. The policy as explained on this web page applies also to older TOAEP publications released prior to 15 September 2022.

Enquiries concerning the policy described on this page should be sent to [email protected].


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